‘Studies have found that drops in magnesium are common before or during migraine attacks. This essential mineral plays a role in nerve cell function and may alter serotonin levels, which could explain its impact. Supplementing with magnesium can provide relief. “it has an almost immediate effect in some patients,” says Kroner. (The RDA is 320 mg for women, 420 mg for men.)

Riboflavin (B-2) and vitamin B-12 may also ward off attacks. These vitamins boost energy, and their effectiveness might be tied to the low mitochondrial energy metabolism seen in the brains of migraine sufferers, says Kroner. Although previous research found that 400 mg daily of riboflavin (more than 300 times the amount recommended for a healthy diet) can significantly reduce migraine frequency, a 2004 study in the journal Headache determined that 25 mg per day might also do the trick. The natural supplement MigreLief (migrelief.com) contains the larger dose of riboflavin, along with 300 mg of magnesium and 100 mg of feverfew.’